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White Papers

Use these links to view our white papers and citations to see where we have gathered information from, explore, and learn more.


Landscape Carbon Calculator References


Sequestration and Plant-Based Sequestration

California Landscape Conservation Partnership (CALCP). (n.d.). Climate Adaptation Data Catalog.

Retrieved from

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (n.d.) Ecological regions of North America [map].

Retrieved from:

Fisher, A.A. (2018). Will carbon sequestration redeem the lawn? Retrieved from

Natural and Working Lands Working Paper. (2014). Retrieved from

Romm, J. (2008). The biggest source of mistakes: C vs. CO2. Retrieved from

United States Department of the Interior. (2012). Interior releases study of carbon storage and sequestration in western ecosystems as part of national assessment. Retrieved from

Zhu, Z.(ed.), Bouchard, M., Butman, D., Hawbaker, T., Li, Z., Liu, J., … Wein, A. (2011). Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States [U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1787]. Retrieved from

Zhu, Z., Sleeter, B.M., Griffith, G.E., Stackpoole, S.M., Hawbaker, T.J., & Bergamaschi, B.A. (2012). An Assessment of carbon sequestration in ecosystems of the Western United States—Scope, methodology, and geography. Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the Western United States [U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797]. Retrieved from

Zirkle, G., Lal, R., & Augustin, B. (2011). Modeling carbon sequestration in home lawns.

HortScience46(5), 808-814. doi:

Zirkle, G., Lal, R., Augustin, B., & Follett, R. (2012). Modeling carbon sequestration in the U.S. residential landscape. Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, 265-276. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2366-5_14


Soil Organic Carbon (S.O.C.)

Carlson, J. (n.d.) Fact sheets: How much carbon can soil store. Retrieved from

Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. (2019). What is soil organic carbon? Retrieved from Pluske, W., Murphy, D., & Sheppard, J. (n.d.) Fact sheets: Total organic carbon. Retrieved from


Tree Sequestration

Bjorkman, J., Thorne, J.H., Hollander, A., Roth, N.E., Boynton, R.M., de Goede, J.,… Quinn, J.F. (2015.) Biomass, carbon sequestration and avoided emission: assessing the role of urban trees in California. UC Davis: Information Center for the Environment. Retrieved from

City of San Jose. (2014). Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration calculator. Retrieved from

Climate Change Resource Center (CRCC). (n.d.). CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator (CTCC). Retrieved from

Energy Information Administration. (1998). Method for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings. Retrieved from

Nakano Associate. (2015). Measuring carbon sequestration of urban trees. Retrieved from

Nowak, D.J., Greenfield, E.J., Hoehn, R.E., & Lapoint, E. (2013). Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States. Enviornmental Pollution178. Retrieved from

Scharenbroch, B.C. (2012) Urban trees for carbon sequestration. In: Lal, R. & Augustin, B. (Eds.), Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, 121-138. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:

Scott, T. (n.d.). Carbon sequestration in oak woodlands [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from


Emerging Technologies

Rathi, A. (2017). The world’s first “negative emissions” plant has begun operation—turning carbon dioxide into stone. Retrieved from



Carbon Footprints- General (2012). Amounts of CO2 released when making & using products. Retrieved from


Equipment Emissions

Equipment World. (2009). Owning and operating costs. Retrieved from

Gable, P. A. (2000). Characterization of emissions from handheld two-stroke engines (Report No. AS3A). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from

Jones, F. & Boles, E. (2017). Gas vs battery powered maintenance tools on the University of Arkansas campus. University Of Arkansas Office For Sustainability. Retrieved from

Kavanagh, J. (2011). Emissions test: Car vs. truck vs. leaf blower. Edmunds. Retrieved from

Union of Concerned Scientists. (n.d.). How clean is your electric vehicle? Retrieved from


Hardscape Emissions

Block Layer. (n.d.). Calculate rebar spacing, layout and weight in a concrete slab. Retrieved from

Build Carbon Neutral. (2007). Construction carbon calculator. Retrieved from

Bulduc, L. P. (2018). Reducing emissions with CO² cured-concrete. Ecohome. Retrieved from

Calkins, M. (2017). Concrete minus carbon. Landscape Architecture Magazine. Retrieved from

Inch Calculator. (n.d.). Lumber and hardwood weight calculator. Retrieved from

Mineral Products Association (MPA). (n.d.). Carbon management. Retrieved from

Mitchell, C. J. (2012). Aggregate carbon demand: The hunt for low-carbon aggregate. In E. Hunger & G. Walton Eds.) Proceedings of the 16th Extractive Industry Geology Conference (pp. 93-99). EIG Conferences, Ltd. Retrieved from

O’Connor, K., Pocock, C., Barthelmeh, M., & Davis, S. (2011). Carbon and environmental profiling of hard landscape materials (Research Report No. 22). Centre for Land, Environment and People, Lincoln University. Retrieved from;sequence=1

Oly-Ola Edgings, Inc. (n.d.). Bric-EdgTM flexible & rigid 2 inch high paver restraint. Retrieved from

Stone Specialist. (2010). Ecology: Stone is the greenest building material. Retrieved from

TW Metals. (n.d.). Metal weight calculator. Retrieved from

Upstate Steel. (n.d.). Cold finished flats. Retrieved from Wheeler Zamaroni. (n.d.). Calculate materials. Retrieved from Whittington Steel. (n.d.). Reference guides: Flats. Retrieved from


Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Emissions

FlexPVC. (n.d.). Schedule 40 and 80 rigid PVC pipe specifications. Retrieved from

MacDonald, J. (2009). What’s the carbon footprint of your credit card? Retrieved from

Trüggelmann, U. (2012). Carbon footprInt of the card industry. Retrieved from


Soil Organic Carbon

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). (n.d.). Total organic carbon. Retrieved from


Tree and Tree Care Carbon Footprints

Shea, E. (2017). Shades of green: The hidden carbon cost of tree planting and care. Retrieved from


Professionals Consulted

Steve Berlin- Berlin Masonry Inc.